Category Archives: Networking

Ubuntu 16.04 – Wake on LAN

I have struggled a bit trying to understand while my Ubuntu 16.04 wasn’t waking up with the common  etherwake  commad.

I found the solution on this link:

you should disable Default option in Network-Manager GUI and enable only the Magic option. If you try this, then you should check if everything is ok opening the shell and issuing this command:

You should see the line:

If it’s not g but d or something else, something could be wrong.

Once done that, and verified with the command  ethtool <myNetinterface> | grep "Wake-on:" , all started to work again 🙂

 

Bridge / Bond interfaces CentOS/RedHat

Just few notes about how to bridge or bond network interfaces in CentOS/RedHat systems

 

Sources:

Linux Firewall notes

IPTABLES GENERIC

 


UBUNTU – UFW

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/UFW

 


CENTOS / RH – Firewalld

Saved rules in: /etc/sysconfig/iptables

 

Remote port forwarding via SSH

Imagine that you want to access a specific port on a remote server from your local machine. Basically, a “remote port forwarding”.

This remote server is not accessible directly from internet. It is NAT’d behind firewall.
To access the remote server you need to connect firstly to a remote bastion server (accessible from internet) and from there, you will be able to access the server.
Your current machine is also within restricted network and unable to ssh out. You can ssh into a local bastion server only. From this local bastion you can ssh out.

As long as you have access to the 2 bastions servers, you will be able to run the following script.

The script points/links a local_port on your local machine to the ssh port of the remote bastion, via your local bastion.
After that, it will connect the remote port or the remote server to a new_local_port, ssh’ing via local_port.

Example below shows a way to have the VNC port 5900 available locally on port 5910.
I’m using port 8888 as local port.
Local Bastion ssh port is 8022.
Remote Bastion ssh port is 9022.

Example:

 

And here a full script:

 

Physically restart Sky router via Raspberry Pi

I have a Sky Hub router, the SR102 (black). Previously I had the white version as well.
Nice routers, pretty stable, but badly locked. You can change the SID of your wifi, change the password… not either sure if you can do a proper port forwarding. So… perfect for my mum, but a pain for whoever wants a little bit of extra control.

I had already an ASUS RT-N16 with DD-WRT firmware so I used the DMZ function on the Sky router to have some sort of “link” of the public IP of my broadband directly on the WAN interface of the router. In this way it’s like that is my ASUS router that does the connection and I can play as freely as I want, without caring much about the Sky router.

However, it happens that sometimes you need to give a full reboot to the main Sky router. And maybe do this automatically or via command line/script. And here it’s when things are getting more complicated.

The Sky Hub router allows you to reboot it via HTTP. Using the DMZ anyway will bypass the router itself and forward all the requests to the ASUS router. Also, I have never liked the idea to expose my router management page to the Internet, but I rather prefer to connect via SSH on a Raspberry Pi and issue commands from the terminal (telnet/ssh).

So, beside my multiple attempts to find a way to curl the button on the page, I had to find an alternative way to makes this happen. Of course, it didn’t help either to call the Sky Helpline asking if there was a remote possibility to have telnet enabled.

After a bit of talks on Facebook with some friends, here the solution: Remote Controlled Sockets with Pi-mote

Yes. If I can’t reboot from inside, let’s to that from outside!

The process was pretty straight forward.

First of all, I had to turn off my Raspberry Pi, and plug the “little green piece of board” as mentioned in here

After that, I’ve turned the pi on again, and installed the required packages. Happily I found that there is now the python library available for energenie, so I have installed them as well, making my life easier 🙂

Once done, I have created these two basic script and I have run one a time, to configure the socket plugs.

Make sure to plug the ONE SOCKET PLUG A TIME and run the relative script.

You can find more information in the previous PDF, but these sockets learn who they are based on which commands they are receiving during the learning mode (enabling keeping the green button pressed for about 5 seconds when switched off). So if you run the first script with both plugs connected and in learning mode, they will do exactly the same, and unless you want to control two sockets at the same time, better to follow the instructions 🙂

Script to configure the first socket:

 

Script to configure the second socket:

 

And now, my simple script to make… “the magic”: plugs.py

You can use this script to control any sockets (up to 4 – hardware limitation).

And here a bash wrapper (I’m not really good in python sorry) that calls plugs.py and restart the router: restart_sky_router

 

Now, I can have my Nagios system to check for the speed as documented here and eventually issue restart_sky_router script to see if it fixes the issue. Or simply be able to have a command to integrate in your scripts!

 

Disable firewalld – Centos 7

Install iptables and remove firewalld

Banana Pi Pro – WLAN configuration

Add ‘ap6210‘ to /etc/modules to enable WiFi, and use modprobe ap6210 to force load the module.

Check dmesg to see if all has been loaded correctly. If not, reboot and check again.

Install the required packages:

Modify /etc/network/interfaces

Bring the interface up:

Source: http://oyox.de/882-wlan-auf-bananian-banana-pi-einrichten/

Networking – IP Address classes explained

IP address classes

IP addresses can be broken down into classes. These classes are A, B, C, D, E and their possible ranges can be seen below.

Class Start address Finish address
A 0.0.0.0 126.255.255.255
B 128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255
C 192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255
D 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255
E 240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255

If you look at the table you may notice something strange. The range of IP address from Class A to Class B skips the 127.0.0.0-127.255.255.255 range. That is because this range is reserved for the special addresses called Loopback addresses that have already been discussed above.

The rest of classes are allocated to companies and organizations based upon the amount of IP addresses that they may need. Listed below are descriptions of the IP classes and the organizations that will typically receive that type of allocation.

Default Network: The special network 0.0.0.0 is generally used for routing.

Class A: From the table above you see that there are 126 class A networks. These networks consist of 16,777,214 possible IP addresses that can be assigned to devices and computers. This type of allocation is generally given to very large networks such as multi-national companies.

Loopback: This is the special 127.0.0.0 network that is reserved as a loopback to your own computer. These addresses are used for testing and debugging of your programs or hardware.

Class B: This class consists of 16,384 individual networks, each allocation consisting of 65,534 possible IP addresses. These blocks are generally allocated to Internet Service Providers and large networks, like a college or major hospital.

Class C: There is a total of 2,097,152 Class C networks available, with each network consisting of 255 individual IP addresses. This type of class is generally given to small to mid-sized companies.

Class D: The IP addresses in this class are reserved for a service called Multicast.

Class E: The IP addresses in this class are reserved for experimental use.

Broadcast: This is the special network of 255.255.255.255, and is used for broadcasting messages to the entire network that your computer resides on.

Private Addresses

There are also blocks of IP addresses that are set aside for internal private use for computers not directly connected to the Internet. These IP addresses are not supposed to be routed through the Internet, and most service providers will block the attempt to do so. These IP addresses are used for internal use by company or home networks that need to use TCP/IP but do not want to be directly visible on the Internet. These IP ranges are:

Class
Private Start Address
Private End Address
A
10.0.0.0
10.255.255.255
B
172.16.0.0
172.31.255.255
C
192.168.0.0
192.168.255.255

If you are on a home/office private network and want to use TCP/IP, you should assign your computers/devices IP addresses from one of these three ranges. That way your router/firewall would be the only device with a true IP address which makes your network more secure.

Full source (and loads of thanks):  http://www.bleepingcomputer.com/tutorials/ip-addresses-explained/

 

… some extra summary table from here:

Class 1st Octet Decimal Range 1st Octet High Order Bits Network/Host ID (N=Network, H=Host) Default Subnet Mask Number of Networks Hosts per Network (Usable Addresses)
A 1 – 126* 0 N.H.H.H 255.0.0.0 126 (27 – 2) 16,777,214 (224 – 2)
B 128 – 191 10 N.N.H.H 255.255.0.0 16,382 (214 – 2) 65,534 (216 – 2)
C 192 – 223 110 N.N.N.H 255.255.255.0 2,097,150 (221– 2) 254 (28 – 2)
D 224 – 239 1110 Reserved for Multicasting
E 240 – 254 1111 Experimental; used for research

Note: Class A addresses 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 cannot be used and is reserved for loopback and diagnostic functions.

Private IP Addresses

Class Private Networks Subnet Mask Address Range
A 10.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255
B 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.0.0 255.240.0.0 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
C 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255