Tag Archives: notes

Docker and Kubernetes notes

[Raw notes from this free course: https://www.udacity.com/course/scalable-microservices-with-kubernetes–ud615 ]

Docker is one of the most famous container in use nowadays.

Docker container features/best practise:

  • is portable because you keep all what you need for your application in it (libraries etc) – always run the same, regardless of the environment;
  • reduce conflicts between teams running different software on the same infrastructure;
  • minimal: best practise is to keep as minimal as possible its content;
  • you can ‘freeze’ it and move to another host, if required (using the cgroup capability);
  • no hard coded values in it: variable passed during the deploy or pulled from a file mounted externally;
  • you can mount external storage;
  • you can expose a port -> for example you can have a web app listening on port 80. You can expose port 80 of your container so when you connect to the host’s port 80, traffic will be redirected to the container. This “port forwarding” is the container runtime’s job;
  • ‘Dockerfile’ is the configuration file for the container. You can speficy the image that you want to use (FROM …), which port to expose, the storage to mount etc;




Push container to repository
Dockerhub -> default public (you can also have private)

docker tag -h
Add tag – then login and push


Create/Package container (5% of the work)

  • App configuration
  • Service Discovery
  • Managing Updates
  • Monitoring

Kubernetes -> Cluster like single machine
You need to describe the apps and how they interact between each others

– collection of containers (possible multiple apps on different containers)
– shares network namespace (IP)
– shares storage volumes

=> created with conf files

Rediness -> container ready
Liveness -> app not working / restart app

Services -> labels

Desidered state

Scaling -> increase “replicas”

Rolling updates – CTO roll => deploy new version, get traffic, stop traffic prev version, remove prev verision (this per each POD)

Compromised Email troubleshooting notes

Here some notes about how to troubleshoot a server that got compromised by a php script.

Check email queue

  • Qmail -> qmHandle
  • Postfix -> pmHandle / postqueue

Get some email IDs

Check for X-PHP header in the mail message
Look for the UID and script that sent the message

Find the script and UID

=> permissions issue??

Move away the file(s) and chown 000
!! if the file starts with – , you need to user chown — 000 filename

Disable execution php following this how to

Delete all the messages containing that header

Extra notes:

Check the queue:

See the content of a message:

Check for “X-PHP-Originating-Script” header, which generally gives you the name of the script that generate the email

If they are sent to a specific domain, you can block some domains in Postfix following this guide

Redis – basic checks



Linux resource checks notes

atop utility



Fail2ban notes

General notes about Fail2ban

How to “SSH” brute force

If you want to make safer your remote server, it is good practise to use a good combination of sshd setup and fail2ban.

Firstly, you should setup your server to allow only key auth, and no passwords. This will drastically reduce the risk. This means anyway that you need to keep your ssh key safe and you won’t be able to access your server unless you have this key. Most of the time is something possible 🙂

For this reason, I’m explaining here how I configured my server.



Have these settings in the config file (NOTE: the verbosity is for Fail2ban)

(restart sshd)



Add a custom section after the ddos one:

This line matches whoever tries to connect without a proper ssh key.

Add this line to include custom to the sshd-aggressive setup:


MySQL notes

MySQL backup – mysqldump
shell> mysqldump [options] db_name [tbl_name …] > db_name.sql
shell> mysqldump [options] –databases db_name … > multi_db.sql
shell> mysqldump [options] –all-databases > all_dbs.sql

Importing MySQL Table
To import the table run the following command from the command line:
shell> mysql -D dbname < tableName.sql

Check database space
SELECT table_schema “Data Base Name”, sum( data_length + index_length ) / 1024 / 1024 “Data Base Size in MB” FROM information_schema.TABLES GROUP BY table_schema ;

MySQL Uptime
b) # mysqladmin version | grep -i uptime

mysql> show global variables like “innodb_open_files”\G

Binary Logs
>> Enable:
> /etc/my.cnf
log-bin = /var/lib/mysql/bin-log

Enable the slow query log
slow-query-log = 1

Log queries that take longer than 2 seconds
long-query-time = 2

Set ‘max_connections’:
>> On the fly (GLOBAL variable. we can increase it on the fly without restarting mysqld service)
[Check] select @@global.max_connections;
[Set] set @@global.max_connections=300;
[Re-Check] select @@global.max_connections;
(or mysql> set global max_connections=250;)

>> CHANGE on /etc/my.cnf
max_connections = 50
max-connections = 50

set @@global.max_connections=default;

Set the query_cache_size to 16MB, query_cache_type to 1 and query_cache_limit to 1MB

mysql> set global query_cache_size=16*1024*1024;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> set global query_cache_type=1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> set global query_cache_limit=1*1024*1024;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

Check variables
select @@global.max_connections;OR
show variables;show variables like ‘%max%’;

Disable InnoDB
default-storage-engine = myisam

Check if Query Cache is enabled:
SHOW VARIABLES LIKE ‘have_query_cache’;

Check Query Cache statistics:
show status like ‘Qcache%’;

MySQL’s maximum memory usage is dangerously high
>> (read_buffer_size + read_rnd_buffer_size + sort_buffer_size + thread_stack + join_buffer_size) x max_connections
=> change max_connections

wait_timeout (global variable)
mysql> show processlist;
If there are too many queries, it might be a bug in the code (for example no “close connections”). In this case, it would be safer to setup a wait_timeout low, maybe 180 (seconds -> 3mins) to make sure the sleeping connections will get dropped at that time.